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Old 08/05/2019, 01:46 PM   #1
ThRoewer
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Join Date: Jan 2015
Location: Fremont, CA
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Ulcers may not always be caused by Uronema

There are a few other things that may cause ulcers on fish aside from Uronema - here is one alternative cause:
Opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Maldive’s clown fish Amphiprion nigripes with hemorrhages

"Abstract
Objective: To investigate the cause of mortality of Maldive’s clownfish, Amphiprion nigripes during the
culture period in ornamental fish hatchery, Agatti Island, Lakshadweep archipelago using molecular
techniques.
Methods: During cultured period august 2010 the fishes were died with skin hemorrhages. Bacteria were
isolated from the infected parts of liver, kidney and tissue of the fish using Nutrient agar and Zobell
Marine Agar and the causative bacteria has been identified using 16S rDNA sequencing and confirmed
with gene bank. The physico-chemical parameters were analyzed at the time of acclimatization and
experimental period.
Results: The predominant bacterial morphology was identified as gram-negative rod-shaped, motile
bacteria. Based on biochemical tests and sequence of 16S rDNA, the causative bacteria were identified as
K. pneumoniae (Accession no. HQ589912). Bacterial cells were isolated from liver and kidney of all
artificially infected moribund fish and confirmed as K. pneumoniae by morphological and biochemical
characteristics. Fishes artificially infected by same causative agent, mortality was observed on 48th hour
and no fish died within 24 hours of post exposure.
Conclusion: K. pneumoniae could be considered as an opportunistic pathogen and a symptom including
hemorrhages, ulcers, and redness of the skin and it’s actively causing disease when favorable conditions
occurred like increasing of un-ionized ammonia in culture tank.
Keywords: K. pneumoniae, A. nigripes, abscess, 16s rDNA, infection, Lakshad"



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Pairs: 4 percula, 3 P. kauderni, 3 D. excisus, 1 ea of P. diacanthus, S. splendidus, C. altivelis O. rosenblatti, D. janssi, S. yasha & a Gramma loreto trio
3 P. diacanthus. 2 C. starcki

Current Tank Info: 200 gal 4 tank system (40x28x24 + 40B + 40B sump tank + 20g refugium) + 30x18x18 mixed reef + 20g East Pacific biotop + 20g FW +...
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